Write short note on democracy, political democracy and economic development in India since 1947.

Democracy has been defined government, of the people, by the people and for the people. As in indirect democracy governments are formed on the basis of votes, so will of majority prevails.

All over the world in democratic countries will of majority prevails and persons belonging to majority religion or sect or caste, creed or sex rule, but India is only country where safeguards, concessions and privileges have been provided to minorities, to weaker sections, to fair sex etc. and they rule and occupy highest offices as such India can be considered as a form of good governance that empowers the way of arriving at decisions among a group of individuals.

India lacks that virtue as corruption and inefficiency is rampant everywhere’ in every sphere of life and it also lacks unanimity, party in power uses all state machinery to curb opposition and topples opposition government of states by hook or crook and so riots, agitations, demonstrations and violence even in elected bodies is common. Thus need of hour is that democracy should be understood in which both party in power and opposition should follow democratic norms and should act for welfare of all citizens.


India after independence abolished Zamindari system and merged petty Indian states into part B states promising privy purses to rulers and later on these privy pusses were also abolished, as these were considered uneconomic and hindrance for development. India followed path of development through Planning Commission on Russian model, Five Years Plans were made for development and agricultural production was increased. Industrial production was increased by massive government support.

Land reforms could not be implemented as the lower bureaucracy in alliance with local landed lobby of politicians abstracted it, so power passed to big land agriculture owners, who are called Kulaks. But these Kulaks helped in increasing agricultural production and India began to produce more than required for increasing population. Population in India increased by leaps and bounds but agricultural products increased more rapidly.

In industrial sphere India made astonishing progress and large scale industries grew very rapidly during this period due to efforts of government and Planning Commission, and Five Year Plans etc.


During this period big land holders of agricultural lands rose. Dominant castes of rich peasantry such as Jats, Yadavas, Kurmies, Kanuna, Kapu, Reddies and Lodhi Rajputs became dominant castes and gained hold on politics of India. They were economically strong and numerically powerful. On the other hand native rulers, feudal class and business class lost its dominance as princes became weak due to abolition of privy purses and their privileges and power.

Business class and industrialists lost their hold due to control of industry and development by government and Planning Commission. Nationalization of banks and industries crippled industrial and business class.

On the other hand due to power to issue license, control business and industry, bureaucracy gained unlimited power, so it became corrupt and inefficient. It failed to gain popular support for reforms due to inefficiency and incompetency. Patronage, corruption and nepotism continued fully, so Congress became unpopular but Indira Gandhi remained in power due to her slogan of Garibi Hatao. But movement of opposition led by Jai Prakash Narain and Ram Manohar Lohia made Indira Government unpopular.

Indira Gandhi with the, help of President Fakkruddin Ali Ahmed proclaimed emergency to curb it, but emergency and arrest of opposition leaders made Indira Gandhi unpopular, Congress lost election and coalition Government of opposition parties was formed.

Leaders of opposition parties quarrelled, so money and muscle power began to dominate politics. Caste, religion and ethnicity became main vote Catchers. In spite of all this, Indira Gandhi again gained power but she was assassinated on 31st October, 1984 and was succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi, who was assassinated. Congress Government under Narsimha Rao was formed which followed economic policy of globalization, which is being followed both by N.D. A. and U.P. A. Governments.


Narsimha Rao government under finance minister Manmohan Singh followed policy of economic liberalization instead of planning model. For this, India got support of World Bank and I.M.F. Due to this, development progressed leaps and bounds. Hot money demanding quick returns gained importance and popularity.

As such undeveloped regions such a.s Uttranchal, Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh demanded statehood which was granted by N.D.A. government led by Atal Bihari Vajpai. After this, demands for Bundelkhand, Rohilkhand, Harit Pradesh became popular along with demand of Vidarbh and Telangana states. In 2004 elections, N.D.A. lost power and U.P. A government has been formed by Sardar Manmohan Singh with the cooperation of Communists and is following policy of globalization and of market economy instead of planned Nehruvian model.

India is making progress very rapidly and her economy is third i.e., next to U.S.A and China. Thus, India has succeeded in maintaining democracy and in achieving development.

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