The main aim of the primitive human society revolved mainly around food gathering and hunting. Food Gathering and Hunting to survive, man needed food and protection. Human beings gathered food from different plants and tree. In this process they discovered the harmful and the harmless food and animals to protect themselves.

In order to achieve food and protection human beings gathered specialized knowledge in the form of toots and techniques. People started hunting in groups and sharing became a social obligation. In this process verbal communication became a part of routine and language arouse as a necessity.

The Material Basis of Primitive Life

We have studied in the topic above that the tools were invented for food and protection from animals. The tools were mainly made up of stones and thus the era is named as Stone Age.

Implements and Tools

Tools were designed in a specific shape and size for specific purposes like digging, throwing, etc.

Clothes: Another important aspect which increased the mobility of the human beings over wider areas while hunting was clothing. Animal skin, feathers, bones were used to make clothes which in turn helped them to keep warm.

Fire and Cookery: Another major invention of the primitive age was fire. Fire was used to keep human beings warm and to frighten away wild animals. Fired pottery, dyes, paints and tanning were discovered in the Stone Age.

Social Basis of Primitive Life

Social life became an integral part of the human beings with, the invention of various tools and the discovery of fire in the primitive age. Language. customs, traditions started developing in this age.

Language: While getting involved in group activities like hunting, etc. language have developed as a part of communication between the human beings. The transition from specialized to general’ language also meant a trend towards abstraction which led to the use of symbols. Verbal., symbolization also came to be used for feelings, emotions and ideas.

Social Life and Rituals: As studied earlier. because hunting or food gathering became a social activity, therefore social life was developed. In this social life certain rituals were developed to avoid scarcity. Some rituals were developed to control the population like human Sacrifice, etc.

Magic, Religion and Caste: Objects were given magic to fill in the gaps left by the , imitations of technique. This Magic in turn helped in the growth of science. But later on, these magical ideas turned into superstitions and myths.

During the evolution of human beings religion was also developed. Their beliefs and efforts ultimately were named as religion. Caste system was also developed as people belonging to the same group doing same activities and together involved in food gathering activities. Some people survived at animal flesh and some survived on leaves of different trees thus giving birth to the caste system (especially in India).

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